The Round Table «The Path of Russia: Modernization or Imitation?» is devoted to discussing the actual and debatable issues of the Russian modernizations in the 18th – 21st centuries. In the core of scholars’ discussion there would be the very possibility of applying the modernization approaches (in Classical and neo-Classical versions) for an explanation of the path of Russia’s historical development during the Imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet period. It is supposed to discuss a question of the character of the Russian modernizations, since in the scientific literature, various, sometimes just the opposite, views are exposed in regard to both the whole course of Russia’s history in the 18th – 21st centuries and its distinctive periods (Soviet, or Stalinist era): successful, real, unsuccessful, recidivizing, cyclic, deadlock, pseudo-, contra-, or anti-modernisation. The problem of periodization, in particular, of distinguishing the modernization stages, the inclusion/exclusion of one or another historical epoch out of context of modernization, is worth attention. Debatable is the question concerned with modernization’s motive forces: whether it was totally etatist or having included also some elements of spontaneous, natural development; what role was played in it by various social, economic, political, and ethno-confessional actors. The questions dealt with the importance of natural geographical conditions, the spatial factor, and variability of regional frames of modernization are also provoking disputes.