Issue 4

MODELS OF LANDSCAPE CAPACITY CHANGERS IN THE MESOLITHIC — EARLY IRON AGE IN THE TRANS-URAL (based on the peat-bog sites materials)
Year 2012 Number 4(37)
Pages 42-49 Type scientific article
UDC BBK
Authors Chairkina Natalia M.
Topic ARCHAEOLOGY OF SETTLEMENTS: METHODOLOGY, TECHNIQUE, PRACTICE
Summary The evolution of peat-bog sites of the Trans-Ural was conditioned by the natural and climatic changes in various periods of the Holocene. In the boreal period and throughout most of the Atlantic period during the Mesolithic and the Neolithic these processes were not universal. During that period mostly the coastal, near shore areas and only occasionally waterlogged territories were inhabited. During the Eneolithic and the early Bronze Age with the intensifi cation of marsh formation processes the strategy of landscape capacity by the ancient population was gradually changing. Alongside with the coastal areas the population began settling in the peaty paleolakes bowls, where they built transport communications, production facilities and sacred sites. The practice of transfer of a base settlement to another coastal site offering a more convenient development strategy was becoming a common pattern. This trend continued also during the Bronze and the Iron Ages. The encompassing landscape during all archaeological periods determined the need for adaptation of the social groups to the landscape transformations. Various models of such adaptation were developed by social systems and were, on the one hand, dependent on the cultural traditions, and, on the other hand — predetermined by the epoch-making climate changes, and therefore were universal, i.e. were characteristic for populations of different regions and different epochs
Keywords landscape, environment, spatial localization and chronology of peat bog sites of the Middle Trans-Urals, the settlement patterns and social systems, industrial and cult practice, social adaptation
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