Issue 2 (59)

Year 2018 Number 2(59)
Pages 13-21 Type scientific article
UDC 930.85(470) BBK 63.0+63.3(2)
Authors Zubkov Konstantin I.
Summary The article examines the peculiarities of the Russian historical process in the light of analytical scheme “ñhallenge–response” suggested by A. J. Toynbee as a core of his theory of genesis of civilizations. As a study result, there was defined a high degree of verification of viewing Russia as a self-dependent civilization of “continental” type, in development of which the determinants of natural geography had extraordinary significance. The analysis of spatial-geographic conditions of Eurasia as an arena for developing the Russian history gives a view of complex and historically prolonged character of the “big challenge”, which is defined here as “Eurasian” and with which the most powerful impulses for the emergence of the Russian civilization should be bound. In the structure of that challenge, the factors of “continentality” and unfavorable natural conditions were inseparably bound with the external military pressure, while the process of colonization had become a complex strategy for response to their massive impacts. The colonization withdrawal of population from southern Rus’ and migration of the political centre of the Russian lands to the north-east became, historically, the first successful response to the Eurasian challenge and the genuine moment for the birth of the Russian civilization. After the Russian state being strengthened at the expense of the northern and north-eastern areas, the further development of the Russian civilization was connected with the decisive turn of the colo-nization front southwards. The following agrarian development of the steppe parts of Eurasia being previously a zone of nomadic dominance, should be considered as both the most important historical mission of the Russian civilization and the first Russian modernization.
Keywords Russia, Eurasia, Russian civilization, Toynbee, challenge, response, colonization, security

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