Issue 2 (59)

Year 2018 Number 2(59)
Pages 39-48 Type scientific article
UDC 930.2(470) BBK 63.0+63.3(2)
Authors Senyavsky Alexander S.
Summary Big challenges and answers to them in the imperial and Soviet periods of Russian history are compared with the positions of the sociosystem methodology. A regularity is observed: their typological composition, for all differences in content and forms, is largely analogous. The reasons, contrary to the fundamental differences between the imperial and Soviet systems, in the continuity of the civilizational foundations of society, the combination of internal and external conditions for the preservation of rigid statism in a country with a multitude of centrifugal factors that are opposed by the integrating and defensive, civilizing and modernizing role of a powerful state. The reasons for the relative preservation of Russia’s place in the world geopolitical and geo-economic space, constant external pressure, often turning into direct aggression, are still catching up with the West, mainly through imitative and borrowing modernization. Survival and development of Russia complicated various internal splits (civilizational, cultural, religious, social, etc.), which, transforming, passed to the following stages. The question is raised about the historical micro-cycles (within the imperial period), which culminated in the aggravation of the old and the appearance of qualitatively new challenges requiring a new response, and macrocycles (large imperial and Soviet), whose problems were resolved through a systemic catastrophe. Of particular importance was the negative evolution of the elite, a part of which, under the influence of Western values, was leading to the degradation, degeneration and betrayal of national interests. The result of these processes, supplemented by the actions of the counter-elite, repeated its destructive influence at the end of the imperial and Soviet cycles of Russian history, becoming one of the most important factors of the systemic collapse and empire, and the USSR.
Keywords history of Russia, socio-system analysis, the imperial and Soviet periods, macro and micro-cycles, large-scale calls and answers, geopolitics and geo-economics, elites and counter-elites

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