Issue 3 (60)

Year 2018 Number 3(60)
Pages 31-39 Type scientific article
UDC 39(=943.87) BBK 63.521(=634)
Authors Vasilyeva Valeria V.
Summary The study focused on the techniques used for orientation in the tundra by the Dolgans of the eastern part of the Taimyr peninsula. The material was studied within the context of the theory of mental/cognitive maps and concept of wayfinding. The navigation techniques used by the Dolgans may be grouped in two categories — the azimuth movement accompanied by a wide range of supplementary techniques, and the movement along the scored lines, such as the tracks left by previous drivers, or the river beds. The techniques are normally used in combination, and the dominance of one over another would depend on several factors: the driver’s experience, the season, the weather, or the purpose of the journey. Part of the Dolgan orientation skills was related to the existence of the so called ‘mental maps’ in the driver’s mind, while another part may only be explained by the environmental engagement theory concepts. However certain aspects of navigation may not be fully comprehended by any of these theories. The article also discusses the issue of the dependence of the cognitive techniques on a particular transportation vehicle used.
Keywords navigation, wayfinding, spatial cognition, mental maps, cognitive anthropology, Taimyr, Dolgans

Adaev V. N. [“Ground landmarks” and “road landmarks”: earth-based natural and artificial objects in the system of spatial orientation with the tundra Nenets]. Vestnik archeologii, antropologii i etnografii [Bulletin of Archaeology, Anthropology and Ethnography], 2015, no. 1 (28), pp. 98–106. (in Russ.).

Adaev V. N. [Forms of transfer of geographic information in the traditions of the tundra and the forest Nenets]. Ural’skij istoriceski vestnik [Ural Historical Journal], 2015, no. 2 (47), pp. 33–38. (in Russ.).

Aporta C. Old routes, new trails: Contemporary Inuit travel and orienting in Igloolik, Nunavut. Thesis (Ph. D.). University of Alberta, 2003. (in English).

Aporta C., Higgs E. Satellite culture: global positioning systems, Inuit wayfinding, and the need for a new account of technology. Current anthropology, 2005, vol. 46 (5), pp. 729–753. (in English).

Argounova-Low T. Narrating the Road. Landscape Research, 2012, vol. 37 (2), pp. 191–206. (in English).

Büscher M., Urry J. Mobile methods and the empirical. European Journal of Social Theory, 2009, vol. 12 (1), pp. 99–116. (in English).

Dudeck S. From the Reindeer Path to the Highway and Back-Understanding the Movements of Khanty Reindeer Herders in Western Siberia. Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics, 2012, vol. 6 (1), pp. 89–106. (in English).

Dyachenko V. I. Okhotniki vysokikh shirot: dolgany i severnye yakuty [Hunters of high latitudes: Dolgans and the Northern Yakuts]. Saint Petersburg: Evropeyskiy Dom, 2005, 271 p. (in Russ.).

Feinberg R., Genz J. Limitations of Language for Conveying Navigational Knowledge: Way‐Finding in the Southeastern Solomon Islands. American Anthropologist, 2012, vol. 114 (2), pp. 336–350. (in English).

Golovnev A. V., Perevalova E. V., Abramov I. V., Kukanov D. A., Rogova A. S., Usenyuk S. G. Kochevniki Arktiki: tekstovo-vizualnye miniatyury [Nomads of the Arctic: text-visual miniatures]. Ekaterinburg: Alfa Print Publ., 2015, 132 p. (in Russ.).

Habeck O., Broz L. Introduction: experience and emotion in northern mobilities. Mobilities, 2015, vol. 10 (4), pp. 511–517. (in English).

Habeck O. Learning to be seated: sedentarization in the soviet Far North as a spatial and cognitive enclosure. Nomadic and Indigenous Spaces: Productions and Cognitions. Surrey Ashgate, London, 2013, pp. 171–196. (in English).

Hutchins E. Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge: USA, MIT Press, 1995, 381 p. (in English).

Ingold T. The perception of the environment: essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge, 2000, 463 p. (in English).

Ingold T. Up, across and along. Creativity and Research Papers, Creativity and Practice Group, Dundee, 2005, no. 5, pp. 21–36. (in English).

Istomin K. V., Dwyer M. J. Finding the way: A critical discussion of anthropological theories of human spatial orientation with reference to reindeer herders of northeastern Europe and western Siberia. Current Anthropology, 2009, vol. 50.1, pp. 29–49. (in English).

Lewis D. Observations on route finding and spatial orientation among the Aboriginal peoples of the Western Desert region of Central Australia. Oceania, 1976, vol. 46 (4), pp. 249–282. (in English).

Lewis D. We, the navigators: the ancient art of landfinding in the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1972, 442 p. (in English).

Loovers J. P. L. Making Lobsticks: Traveling Trails with Teetł’it Gwich’. Sibirica, 2016, vol. 15.1, pp. 41–63. (in English).

Lynch K. The image of the city. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1960, 194 p. (in English).

Pelto P. J. The Snowmobile revolution: Technology and social change in the Arctic. Menlo Park: Cummings Pub., 1973, 225 p. (in English).

Popov A. A. [Reindeer herding in Dolgan]. Sovetskaya etnografiya [Soviet Ethnography], 1935, no. 4/5, pp. 184–205. (in Russ.).

Popov A. A. [The technique of Dolgan]. Sovetskaya etnografiya [Soviet Ethnography], 1937, no. 1, pp. 91–135. (in Russ.).

Prout S. Security and belonging: Reconceptualising Aboriginal Spatial Mobilities in Yamatji Country, Western Australia. Mobilities, 2009, vol. 4 (2), pp. 177–202. (in English).

Shchepanskaya T. B. Kultura dorogi v russkoy miforitualnoy traditsii XIX–XX vv. [Culture of the road in the Russian mythological tradition of the 19th–20th centuries.]. Moscow: Indrik Publ., 2003, 528 p. (in Russ.).

Stammler F. M. Mobile phone revolution in the tundra? Technological change among Russian reindeer nomads. Folklore, 2009, no. 41, pp. 47–78. (in English).

Thompson N. Settlers on the edge: identity and modernization on Russia’s Arctic frontier. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2009, 289 p. (in English).

Tolman E. C. Cognitive maps in mice and men. The Psychological Review, 1948, no. 55, pp. 189–208. (in English).

Download in PDF