Issue 4

FRONTIER MODERNIZATION IN THE EAST OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE: REGIONAL VARIATIONS
Year 2018 Number 4(61)
Pages 72-80 Type scientific article
UDC 94(470)“17/18” BBK 63.3(2)5
Authors Poberezhnikov Igor V.
Topic FRONTIERS IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA
Summary The article shows the specifics of the Russian frontier modernization during the Imperial period under the conditions of the ongoing colonization processes. The author described the regional specifics of modernization patterns in the Volga region, the Ural, and Western Siberia resulting from the size of the regions, the time of their accession, the composition of the population, their geo-political position and security situation, the available resources, the time of the beginning of modernization, the role of the state and the market forces as the development mechanisms. More favorable for modernization conditions facilitated the transformation of the Ural into one of the nation’s leaders of proto-industrial modernization already in the 18th century despite the fact that the colonization processes were still active in the area. In the economic development of the Volga region the agrarian specialization was dominating for a long time, however the agrarian sector was very slow to catch up with the modernization processes. The modernization processes which unfolded during the Great Reforms period were primarily targeted at the infrastructure; in terms of the industrial development the Volga region remained quite backward until the end of the 19th century. Western Siberia was colonized by the Russian state almost at the same time as the Ural, however, the less favorable natural and climatic conditions, its territorial remoteness from the markets of Europe, Asia, and the European part of Russia, as well as the scarce population slowed down the economic development of the region. Modernization in that territory was quite uneven, the structure of industry more archaic, the region maintained its raw material specialization, and the population of a significant part of the territory still maintained the traditional way of life.
Keywords Russia, empire, modernization, frontier, development, region, Volga region, Urals, Western Siberia
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